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Hysterectomy: causes, types and complications



It is a surgical operation in which the uterus is completely or partially removed, depending on the case.

Hysterectomy: causes, types and complications
Hysterectomy: causes, types and complications

The reasons for removing the uterus are due to exposure to great pain and several problems, the solution to which is to remove the uterus, This means that menstruation does not occur and therefore pregnancy stops completely.

Reasons for hysterectomy

  • Vaginal bleeding is difficult to stop.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease is a serious disease of the reproductive organs.
  • Ovarian, cervical or uterine cancer.
  • Fibroids are benign tumors inside the uterus.
  • Uterine prolapse, which is the fall of the uterus from its place and its emergence from the opening of the vagina.
  • Chronic pelvic pain.
  • The growth of the endometrium outside the uterine cavity and this causes pain and bleeding, it is called (endometriosis).
  • Adenomyosis is the growth of the endometrium within the muscles of the uterus.

Types of hysterectomy

  1. Partial hysterectomy: Only the affected part is removed and the doctor may leave the cervix as it is.
  2. Total hysterectomy: During a hysterectomy, the entire uterus is removed in addition to the cervix, In this case, a Pap smear is no longer possible, but regular pelvic exams continue every year.
  3. Hysterectomy, fallopian tubes and ovaries: During this procedure, the uterus, fallopian tubes and one or both ovaries are removed, If both ovaries are removed, you will need hormone therapy, which is an ovarian replacement therapy.

Methods for hysterectomy

Before the operation, the patient is given a general or local anesthetic as per the choice, The method of excision is determined before the operation, after discussing with the patient, and these methods are:

Abdominal hysterectomy

During the resection, the doctor makes a large incision in the abdomen, either vertically or horizontally, The uterus comes out of this incision. Usually, these wounds heal completely with time and leave only a few scars.

vaginal hysterectomy

To perform this operation, the doctor cuts the vagina from the inside to remove the uterus, and in this way there is no external incision that can be seen.

Laparoscopic hysterectomy

This method is performed by a long endoscope with a small camera on top, which is inserted into the uterus after making three or four small holes in the abdomen, The camera helps the doctor see the uterus clearly. 

Then, he cuts the uterus into small pieces to make it easier to remove from the abdomen, and starts pulling one piece at a time.

Post hysterectomy

The process lasts approximately two to three hours. After the completion of the operation, you will stay in the hospital for about 3 days to monitor your vital signs such as temperature, blood pressure, breathing and blood pulse.

During the stay in the hospital, you will be given medicine to relieve pain, and the doctor will ask you to walk several times a day so that you do not get blood clots in the legs.

If the operation was performed vaginally, the doctor will place a large piece of gauze in your vagina to stop the bleeding .Usually, the doctor removes them two days after the operation.

Despite this, the bleeding will continue for several more days, and it may be red or brown, This is what some women think that the bleeding and secretions after the operation is menstruation, but it is not.

If the hysterectomy was performed vaginally or laparoscopically, you will need three or four weeks to return to your normal daily activities.

But if the operation is in the abdominal area, then you need five or six weeks to fully recover.

Tips after a hysterectomy

  • Adhere to taking the recommended medications.
  • Keep walking around the house to prevent clots.
  • Avoid carrying heavy objects.
  • Not pulling things off.
  • Not bending.
  • Completely abstain from sexual intercourse before 6 weeks of the operation.
  • Regular follow-up with the doctor.
  • Looking at the operation from another perspective, which is to get rid of pain and heavy bleeding.
  • Follow up with a psychologist to help you get through this difficult stage.

Long-term complications of hysterectomy

  • Regardless of the type of excision, there will be no menstruation, and therefore no pregnancy.
  • There is a possibility of a prolapse of the organs in the bladder and intestines, and notice that the vagina bulges outward.
  • Exposure to urinary tract problems, the correction of which requires surgery.
  • If the ovaries are not removed, you will quickly reach menopause.
  • When you remove your ovaries and enter menopause, you will face several sexual problems due to a low level of estrogen, and these problems are:

  1. Vaginal dryness.
  2. Pain when having intercourse.
  3. Decreased sexual desire.

(These problems can be treated with hormone replacement after hysterectomy, Which is taken from the urine of a pregnant mare after separating it, It is made in the form of medicinal tablets that have a strong effect in treating these problems).

Hysterectomy and sex

You must wait for 6 weeks before having sexual intercourse, to first make sure of the complete recovery from the effects of the operation, Intercourse may be more painful, especially if you suffer from vaginal dryness, This can be treated with medical creams and moisturizers after consulting a doctor.

There are a few women who have low sexual desire if the nerves responsible for this are removed.

Despite this, the largest percentage of women have improved sexual desire, especially after getting rid of pain and continuous bleeding.

Read: Polycystic Ovaries